Scientists from Britain and Canada found in Western Canada remains of fish, which is probably the ancestor of all modern and extinct inhabitants of the seas and freshwater bodies. Description of fossils and assumptions about its significance to the history of the evolution of life on Earth published in an article in the journal Nature .
Jean-Bernard Caron of the University of Toronto and his colleague Simon Morris from Cambridge University has for decades carried out excavations in South-Eastern British Columbia (province in Western Canada), where lie the rocks of the so-called Burgess shale. They were formed at the bottom of the primary ocean of the Earth 509-505 million years ago, in the Cambrian era, during which he conceived and began to develop multicellular life.
The Burgess shales and their Chinese counterpart, Maotianshan are considered a kind of El Dorado of modern paleontology — only in strata preserved imprints of cartilage, bones and soft tissues of the first vertebrates. Despite the richness of these shales, scientists know almost nothing about how it looked the first fish as they emerged and evolved in the first era after the Cambrian explosion.
Caroni Morris found, apparently, the final answer to these questions by studying the fossilized remains of the ancient inhabitants of the oceans found in the so-called marble Canyon — previously unknown to scientists parts of the Burgess shale, which is open by the authors in 2020 in the national Park of Kootenay. In just two weeks of excavation in the canyon they found hundreds of fossils of large marine animals, including a creature that scientists have ranked as the mind Metaspriggina walcotti.
This is not a new kind: the first fossils of Metaspriggina walcotti had been discovered on the territory of “big” Burgess two years ago. The remains are preserved so poorly that their discoverers could not recover the General features of his appearance, or even to understand whether their owner vertebrates. The Caron and Maurice managed to find over a hundred prints Metaspriggina walcotti shales in Marble Canyon, many of which are preserved so well that they can see the smallest details of the structures of the eye, the muscles and other soft tissues. Continue reading
Transnistria is unique in many respects. This multiethnic region with centuries-old traditions of internationalism, and the state, even unrecognized, but for 18 years the existing de facto. with all state attributes, and the territory in which there are priceless historical and archaeological sites.
Alas, “the unrecognized” TMR and, as a consequence, economic instability, making the impact not only on commercial and industrial activity and the quality of life of citizens, but also on the work of researchers, funding for which, usually, is minimized.
So, only last spring, following the initiative of Vice-President Aleksandr Korolev began the restoration of the Bender fortress, a unique fortification X VI century, earlier almost not studied. And now today they say about the fortress far beyond PMR.
Much earlier, since 1995, scientists on the territory of Transnistria began to explore the largest burial mound ( III century BC) in S. Glina Slobodzeya district.
According to experts, this monument who already gave at least 5 scientific sensations, is conclusive evidence of the presence of Iranian speaking nomads – the Scythians on the Northern black sea region in the III century BC that were previously considered unlikely.
The accumulation in the lower Dniester Scythian burial mounds suggests that this once numerous people, pressed by the Sarmatians,was trying to regain his former power in this region. Today we can only guess what the victims of this attempt turned to the local agricultural population.
By the way, Transnistria in all ages have played the role of a kind of border zone, where at one time faced with the nomads and farmers, and the Turkish Muslims with Christian Europe. Of course – this vicinity is rarely bloodless. So the abundance of the Scythian burial mounds, is probably a sad testimony to the hard struggle for existence waged on the banks of the Dniester river 2,200 years ago (though and now). Continue reading
Not every city is fortunate enough to preserve the original appearance. In difficult times of war and conquest many cities were destroyed and then rebuilt, so only a few buildings managed to “survive” until our times. Remains of a magnificent city, which can rightfully wear the proud title of “the oldest city in the world”.
The mention of the first settlements on the site of modern Jericho are 9000 BC, After three millennia, the city actively began to rebuild and by the end of the 3rd and 2nd Millennium reached its peak. Several times he has been destroyed, one of which was mentioned in the Bible.
It was a magnificent city, in which houses were built of brick and stone. Archaeologists discovered ruins of an ancient synagogue, Dating back to I century BC, a magnificent winter palaces with baths, swimming pools and ornate halls. Near Jericho the mountain of Karantal, which, according to legend, Jesus was forty days tempted of the devil. Now in that place there is the magnificent rock-hewn monastery of Temptation.
One of the oldest city is Damascus, the first mention of which appeared in the middle of the 2nd Millennium BC. Due to the fact that in ancient times Damascus was under the rule of the Egyptians, Israelites, Assyrians, Persians and even Alexander the great, this ancient gurudwaras in the culture of these peoples.
He became known for his Damascus steel, which was popular in medieval Europe. Today you can see the ruins of the ancient gates of the fortress protecting the city from invasions, the Catholic Church, temples, mosques, the old houses that represent the most important monuments of Damascus culture and history. Continue reading