The ancient city of Arkaim (a thousand years older than the legendary Troy) and about two dozen cities of the bronze age came into use of archaeological science as the “land of cities”.
Archaeologists claim that it was first domesticated the horse, invented the world’s first combat two-wheeled chariot was found the world’s first metallurgical furnace for copper smelting, has created one of the most ancient civilizations protogorodskoy, on the mystery which will have to fight many more generations of scientists.
Here, on the arch, in the opinion of some scientists-archaeologists, is the birthplace of the legendary Aryans. They were the creators of the famous religion of fire worshippers.
ARKAIM (Arkaim), archaeological complex includes a fortified village and adjacent economic fields, a burial ground, a number of unfortified villages. The name is given perhaps by name the hills and tracts from Turkish (bash.) “ARKA” (“arch”) – “range”, “back”, “base”). The complex is located in the Chelyabinsk region (in the territory of historical Bashkortostan), on the river, important because of its Big, and its left tributary the river Utyaganka, in the mountain valley on the Eastern slopes of the Ural mountains. The monument dates from the 2nd quarter of. The 2nd Millennium BC (17-16 centuries BC).The radiocarbon method gives – 3600-3900 years ago. Still mysterious Country towns, open to the South of the Chelyabinsk region, is controversial among scientists. There are more questions than answers. Why nomadic tribes need to build real architectural structures? In most homes of Arkaim discovered ancient metallurgical furnaces, but why such “factories” were built away from the deposits of copper? Why a Country of cities belonging to the so-called Sintashta culture, had no analogues either before or after its existence? Where did it come from in the southern Urals?” Settlement Continue reading
Social evolution — the origin of man and of society — is enormous (start) epoch in the history of public and critical moment in the history of observeronly. The emergence of intelligent beings, their Association in different types of community (race, ethnic groups, States), the creation of their civilization meant a qualitative change in the evolution of life on Earth, and may be in device Space.
man is part of the animal world, belonging to mammals, the Primate order, the hominid family, the genus forms a Ho-mo, consisting of two species — Homo primigenius (the Man primitive, primitive) and Homo sapiens (wise Man);
Social evolution — the origin of man and society . The emergence of intelligent beings, their Association in different types of community (race, ethnic groups, States).
Reconstruction of patterns, stages, options of anthropogenesis is based on data from a number of scientific disciplines . first of all, such as : archaeology (excavations of the remains of the first humans and their cultural tools, dwellings, settlements, graves); Ethnography (collecting data about the oldest traditions of contemporary Nations); anthropology (recreates the physical appearance of ancient people and the natural conditions of their habitat, i.e. the biology of the species Homo sapiens), ethology of primates (studying the principles of behavior of higher animals, and especially our semiclassic “relatives” — apes); the history of primitive society (which suggests the original forms and first stages of social development).
A theoretical synthesis of the conclusions of different Sciences, explanation of the origin of humans, thinking over the mysterious hitherto the parties of anthropo — doing theology and philosophy.
Myths-religious version of anthropogenesis are reduced to legends of animals-the progenitors, the parables of the creation of the first men by God. Continue reading
Jerash (Jarash) is a provincial town located in the North of Jordan, whose population is around 30,000 people. It is of considerable interest to foreign tourists and is the second most visited place in the country, after the ancient city of Petra. Jerash is divided into two parts: ancient and modern. They are in close proximity to each other, and they are separated by only a wall. The entrance to the historical area of Jarash paid . to maintain the condition of the unique monuments of architecture and culture in the proper form.
It is believed that the first settlements on the site of the modern Jerash has arisen in the Neolithic period, i.e. in the period when culture inhabited this region people has changed from assign (gatherers, hunters) to producing (cattle, agriculture) the type of farming. And when you consider that in the middle East, the Neolithic period began about 9500 years BC you can imagine how much history it keeps ancient Jerash. People are attracted by beautiful nature, fertile soil and green hills of this region, allowing them to find food and shelter from the scorching sun.
In 63 BC, Jerash was conquered by the Roman army and included in the so-called Decapolis (the ten towns), representing a group of ten antique cities on the East of Jordan valley. City of the Decapolis were in government, had a certain degree of autonomy and were centers of Greek and Roman culture around them among the Nabataean, Aramaic and Jewish settlements.
The era of Roman rule is considered the Golden age of Jerash . who wore at that time the name of Gerasa (Garash). During this time the small town had turned into striking with its scale Roman settlement, built in compliance with all rules and laws of urban planning of those years. Moreover, when the 129 year old Roman Emperor Hadrian decided to visit Jerash . for his arrival was erected a triumphal arch. This grandiose structure was established almost half a kilometer from the southern gate of the city, with the expectation that the city will develop in this way. However, this was not true and therefore the arch is still standing a little away from ancient Jerash . Continue reading