The Museum of archaeology and Ethnography
The prehistory Museum of archaeology and Ethnography of the OGPU associated with the names of prominent Soviet archaeologists explorers of Western Siberia and Altai – Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich and Vladimir Mogilnikova I. matyushchenko. In the expeditions under their management had collected material for the first collections, which was first housed in the office of archeology of historical faculty of the state pedagogical University press.
These scholars have led archaeological practices of students of the history Department in the 1960s, in the period when specialists at the University was not yet. A little later the head of the practice and therefore the author received in the office of archaeology collections is becoming Zakharova Irina Petrovna. In fact, when the first phase began in the life of the future Museum. Researchers headed by I. P. Zakharova have started to create a database of the collections of the future Museum. The most important monuments, excavated then Rostovkinskomu burial ground and ancient city of Merlinka.
In the 70-ies of the transfer of the collection into the study of archaeology began B. A. Conic, one of the leading researchers of the developed middle ages of Western Siberia, a graduate and teacher of the OGPU (then MGPI them. A. M. Gorky). The main sources of revenue collections of the expedition were conducted in the framework of archaeological practice of students of the faculty. It was then that began to form the focus of the future Museum collection of collections on the early iron age and the middle ages. This was due to the scientific internationaldata and problems facing the Western Siberian archeology.
In the 80-ies, archaeologists OGPU launched a broad field of study that directly affected the volume of material coming in future archeological and ethnographic Museum. In this decade, in the Omsk region began to operate program for certification of monuments of history and culture. Active participation in it took the archaeologists OGPU. It is worth noting the design of the archive of the Museum – it was systematized and has regularly been enriched with materials certification. In 80-ies active research begins E. M. Danchenko, continues work B. A. Conic. During this period, the store received collection of monuments from eras of the middle ages and the early iron age from the Northern part of the Middle Irtysh region (Fort Great log, Omsk Parking, Sargatskoe mounds, monuments, and Utima novonikolsky-III).
In 1992 began a new stage in the development of the Museum was allocated space for the Museum and developed the layout design of the exposition, finishing and building materials for which were purchased with the money of the history Department. In 1993, collected showcase of the exposition, next year’s exposition. In 1990-2000, the Museum began to receive collections from the excavations of the Krasnoyarsk archaeological complex (NEC) – a unique monument of archeology.
Today finds from the excavations of the NEC make up a significant part of the funds of the Museum. In 2008, at the request of the Federal Agency Rosokhrankultura, the Museum was derived from the historical faculty in independent structure OGPU.
The Museum from the outset was the study of archaeology, which was created in educational purposes. It was a place of concentration of archaeological collections, benefits for an ongoing course of archaeology and Ethnography, storage for items received in the practices of the history Department. Later, after placing the Cabinet in the Museum, this collection became the base for the scientific work of archaeologists OGPU.
The Museum staff takes part in implementation of grant projects, organizing international expeditions, the implementation of security and rescue archaeological monuments.
The Museum of archaeology and Ethnography of the OGPU holds in its collections a unique archaeological collection gathered during archaeological excavations and investigations since the 1960s, Many of the exhibits brought from the archaeological sites of the largest archaeological cultures Ob-Irtyshye – sargatskoe (barrows S. of Sargatka, Bogdanovka settlement and etc.), bogdanovski (Bogdanovskoe the settlement, the settlement Mikhailovskoye, etc.), Speransky (settlement Saranovskoe and a Large Log), dotchevski (Murinskoe Fort), Karymsky (Krasnoyarsk settlement, Ust-Tarsky mounds), Ust-Ishim (groups of monuments in D. Kip and S. KIPO-Kulary, Ust-Ishim mounds), Bakal (Krasnoyarsk Fort), etc.
The collections of the Museum for writing scientific papers address not only the employees of the OGPU, but also experts of other scientific and educational institutions of Omsk (Omsk State University, Omsk branch of Institute of archeology and Ethnography of SB RAS, the Siberian branch of the Russian Institute of cultural studies, “national archaeological and natural Park “Batakovo””, Omsk regional Union of professional archaeologists, etc.), as well as archaeologists from major scientific centers of Russia (Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Tomsk, Tyumen, Kemerovo, Irkutsk, Novokuznetsk, Barnaul, Moscow, Tobolsk, Surgut, Nefteyugansk) and other countries (Germany, France, USA, Norway).
The collection and the permanent exhibition of the Museum features rare artifacts: Horny carapace (the only fully preserved specimen, the second half of I Millennium BC), leather straps, horse harnesses, bronze casting (the anthropo – and zoomorphic, the early iron age and middle ages), glass beads, clay and bronze utensils, etc. Many of these items become the object of special research, which devoted whole articles and chapters of monographs, textbooks, etc.
The most significant of stored collections is the collection from the excavations of the Krasnoyarsk archaeological complex (NEC). It reflects almost all the stages of colonization of the Middle region from the stone age till late middle ages. In addition, the Krasnoyarsk hillfort, part of the NEC, is the only fully explored in this region. Originating in the early iron age, in the middle ages it became the capital of an early state formations of the future of the Siberian Tatars. Our collection includes unique pieces – bronze casting, glass beads, hundreds of arrowheads, knives, etc. it is Important that the collection is somewhat of a system, which helps to understand culturogenesis processes that took place in the Middle Irtysh zone.
The Museum of archaeology and Ethnography of the OGPU in the last decade has become a scientific center, the staff and professionals who are the organizers of large scientific projects of international archaeological expeditions, grants of the Russian humanitarian scientific Fund. Stored here are the archaeological collection are sources for writing diplomas, bachelor’s and master’s final works, candidate and doctoral dissertations. The materials of the Museum formed the basis of writing dozens of articles and several monographs.