The main factors and stages of anthropogenesis according to modern science
Social evolution — the origin of man and of society — is enormous (start) epoch in the history of public and critical moment in the history of observeronly. The emergence of intelligent beings, their Association in different types of community (race, ethnic groups, States), the creation of their civilization meant a qualitative change in the evolution of life on Earth, and may be in device Space.
man is part of the animal world, belonging to mammals, the Primate order, the hominid family, the genus forms a Ho-mo, consisting of two species — Homo primigenius (the Man primitive, primitive) and Homo sapiens (wise Man);
Social evolution — the origin of man and society . The emergence of intelligent beings, their Association in different types of community (race, ethnic groups, States).
Reconstruction of patterns, stages, options of anthropogenesis is based on data from a number of scientific disciplines . first of all, such as : archaeology (excavations of the remains of the first humans and their cultural tools, dwellings, settlements, graves); Ethnography (collecting data about the oldest traditions of contemporary Nations); anthropology (recreates the physical appearance of ancient people and the natural conditions of their habitat, i.e. the biology of the species Homo sapiens), ethology of primates (studying the principles of behavior of higher animals, and especially our semiclassic “relatives” — apes); the history of primitive society (which suggests the original forms and first stages of social development).
A theoretical synthesis of the conclusions of different Sciences, explanation of the origin of humans, thinking over the mysterious hitherto the parties of anthropo — doing theology and philosophy.
Myths-religious version of anthropogenesis are reduced to legends of animals-the progenitors, the parables of the creation of the first men by God.
Scientific theories of anthropogenesis ( Charles Darwin “the Descent of man and sexual selection”). ( man is part of the animal world, in humans and modern apes have common ancestors)
Further discoveries of archeologists and anthropologists confirmed the correctness of Darwin.
Very instructive data about molecular biology of the genetic relationship and evolution of humans and other apes. So, it appears that the separation of the evolutionary branches of humans and chimpanzees occurred about 4 million years ago. When comparing their mitochondrial DNA is obtained that the division within Homo sapiens began in the range of 300-100 thousand years ago.
So, anthropogenesis science due to the pressure of habitat on a certain population of our APE-like ancestors and the resulting pressure (selection) change in their behavior, and then in the structure of their body.
Stages of anthropogenesis can be simplified as follows.
1. Animals are anthropoids . i.e. resembling human appearance (Ramapithecus), about 9 million years ago.
2. Prehominid — ancient apes, i.e. animal shapes, potentially suitable for further evolution in the direction of man ( Australopithecus — “southern APE”, as we lived in South-East Africa); appeared about 2 million years ago; distinguished by bipedal locomotion; represented by several species.
3. The first leap —“Homo habilis”, which is passed to the permanent use of rude implements of stone and must be of wood; lived between 1 and 1.8 million years ago;
4. Hominids are APE-like people ; begin with a form of Homo erectus — “person rectified”; it is represented by a series of fossil forms ( Pithecanthropus, Sinanthropus, atlantropa, etc.); in addition to artificial guns used fire mastered cave dwellings; lived since 1.6 million years ago and up to 450 thousand years ago;
5. The closest to modern man form the hominid — Neanderthal — according to many modern researchers was a dead-end branch of evolution and for some time co-existed with real people, maybe they were assimilated or exterminated, eaten. Most likely the Neanderthals — it’s kind of the first thing lost humanity. They lived from about 230 to 35 thousand years ago;
6. Second, the final anthropogenesis jump CRO — magnon-man quite modern biological type to which they belong and practically does not differ from him and the people; starting with about 35 thousand years ago;
Factors of anthropogenesis: Mutation, animal food ,
Psychological characteristics: articulate speech ; thinking; labour activity;
Social signs of humanity has provided the cultural environment first people: kinship of community (family, clan, tribe, tribes) ; morality as a system of normative regulation of communication and cooperation of people, the combination of altruism with selfishness is natural selection of the physically strongest individuals ensures the survival of the most cohesive and polyfunctional groups of the first men;