Raskopki ancient cities
D ESAT years ago vozobnovit excavation of Troy. We should say as such to her modest anniversary would be an occasion to return to the neighborhood of the hill of Hissarlik – “fateful mountain of Asia Minor”. Just the situation now around the Trojan excavations, begins to resemble the well-known episode of the age of discovery – intrepid explorers, allegedly paving a new path to the rich spices of India, after some time, was surprised to find that he had discovered unknown to the mankind of the mainland.
“I’M NOT MAKING AN ILLUSTRATION OF HOMER!”
This statement of the Professor of prehistoric and ancient history at the University of tübingen Manfred Corfman – chief of modern excavations at Hissarlik – colleagues a few years ago was considered perfectly acceptable for the master of rhetoric. But recent discoveries in Asia minor, in the region directly forced by the Hellenists, from archaeology to admit that at the time of the Trojan war Troy VI (1700 – 1250 BC) was more of an Asian and not a European city, and, contrary to the”Iliad” of Homer, inhabited by not the Greeks.
EXCAVATIONS WITHOUT A SHOVEL
R be the earth, you will agree, a very thankless and exhausting. In order to reduce labor costs, two Geofisica from team Corfman – Helmut Becker and Jorg Febin an der front^ chal w field season 1992 decided to take a stroll in the vicinity of Troy with the cesium magnetometers, in other words, to conduct magnetic exploration.
D ate that the earth that hides any structures affected by the fires, always has a stronger magnetic properties than the surrounding “empty”. The difference is simple: when exposed to high temperatures, the iron oxide is converted into magnetite mineral with a noticeable magnetic moment. In addition, the decomposition of any organic residues, which are inevitably present in the field of human settlements, activates the activity of specific bacterial species contributing to the formation of crystals of magnetite. All this has an effect on the magnetic field of the Earth, and fixed on the screen of the device. Therefore does not penetrate into the ground, you can predict the presence of ancient anthropogenic structures. It is possible to first know where to dig, and then to take up the shovel.
So here, the method of magnetic exploration at a distance of about 400 m South from the fortress wall encircling the city of Troy, at a depth of 2.5 m was opened on the second wall of baked brick.
In 1993, in the same way these geophysicists have discovered a 350-meter-long fragment of the third stone wall, surrounded by a moat. And in 1994 – and the trench near the second wall. Artificial ditches dug for the second and third walls, was virtually the same: a depth of 1.5 m, width 3 m. One ran 400 meters from the fortress, the other 500 m away.
Now archaeologists believe that last ditch was the boundary of the lower city, where he lived most of the population of Troy, while the Acropolis is also surrounded by walls, inhabited only family members of the ruler and his entourage. Curfman says that “this layout is characteristic of the Oriental, but not for Greek civilization: it is in Central Anatolia and Northern Syria can meet such a fortress with well-fortified and densely built “Lower town”. So Troy type very close to the Anatolian fortresses”. This statement marked the beginning of the evolution of the views of the Professor.
M inula few years, and he finally trampling on the canons of classical archaeology, persuasively stated: “In the bronze age Troy was a part of tsentralnoevropejsky is not Cretan-Mycenaean civilization. Troy was an Outpost of Asia hanging over Europe, and not a major European city of the bronze age”. What archaeological discoveries have led him to such a categorical statement, discussed later.
Since the beginning we will understand why the presence of concentric ditches and “Lower city” is a very weak argument in a debate about the cultural background of Troy.
PLATO IS MY FRIEND.
I ing opponent Manfred Corfman, 39-year-old boy (by archaeological standards) Eberhard Zangger, believes Trojan concentric ditches part of a system of fortifications, like the one that, according to
P Latona existed on Atlantis. “The greatest circumference of the water ring, which is directly connected with the sea, we read in the lovely Platonov “Krithi”, where he described the legendary state, had a width of three-stage (stages I – 185 m), followed by the earthen ring was equal in width; two water rings was in two stage wide and earth again was still water; finally, a ring of water encircling the island in the middle, was in furlongs wide”. Explicit metric stretch (anyone except the fanatic ideas will come to mind to equate Trojans, 3 m in width, ditches navigable channels of the legendary Atlantis?!) might confuse anyone, but only not of Zangger. For example, in one interview, he gives a “mathematical argument”: “the Probability that Troy is Atlantis, equal to 99 percent, whereas the probability that a city on a hill Hissarluka Troy is equal to only 98 percent”.
To orfman, hearing such allegations, refused to perceive the opponent as a serious scientist. Why, for example, proposed by Zangger scheme of research the neighborhoods of Troy deserves close attention. In his opinion, first it is necessary to analyze the terrain from Photographs obtained from satellites. Then, from the height of 3000 m, to examine her radar equipment. Then maybe find other constructions of the bronze age, buried under a layer of earth. And if it succeeds, it is confirmed different, not so stunning, but much more reasonable idea of the Zangger that “practically all more or less large settlements of Greeks in Asia Minor appeared in place of non-GREEK settlements of the bronze age”.
Fortunately for the scientific reputation of the archaeologist, his assumption is confirmed by the results of the excavations.
THE SUCCESS OF “COMPETING FIRMS”
In 1993, Troy has ceased to be the only city of the bronze age found on the territory of Asia Minor. 300 km to the South of Hissarlik, near modern Izmir, a Turkish archaeological expedition under the direction of Professor of archaeology from Ankara erkanal of the Hyatt (the”competing firm”, as jokingly calls her Corfman) found another ancient city – Liman-Tepe, or “Harbor hill” in Turkish.