Scientists from Britain and Canada found in Western Canada remains of fish, which is probably the ancestor of all modern and extinct inhabitants of the seas and freshwater bodies. Description of fossils and assumptions about its significance to the history of the evolution of life on Earth published in an article in the journal Nature .
Jean-Bernard Caron of the University of Toronto and his colleague Simon Morris from Cambridge University has for decades carried out excavations in South-Eastern British Columbia (province in Western Canada), where lie the rocks of the so-called Burgess shale. They were formed at the bottom of the primary ocean of the Earth 509-505 million years ago, in the Cambrian era, during which he conceived and began to develop multicellular life.
The Burgess shales and their Chinese counterpart, Maotianshan are considered a kind of El Dorado of modern paleontology — only in strata preserved imprints of cartilage, bones and soft tissues of the first vertebrates. Despite the richness of these shales, scientists know almost nothing about how it looked the first fish as they emerged and evolved in the first era after the Cambrian explosion.
Caroni Morris found, apparently, the final answer to these questions by studying the fossilized remains of the ancient inhabitants of the oceans found in the so-called marble Canyon — previously unknown to scientists parts of the Burgess shale, which is open by the authors in 2020 in the national Park of Kootenay. In just two weeks of excavation in the canyon they found hundreds of fossils of large marine animals, including a creature that scientists have ranked as the mind Metaspriggina walcotti.
This is not a new kind: the first fossils of Metaspriggina walcotti had been discovered on the territory of “big” Burgess two years ago. The remains are preserved so poorly that their discoverers could not recover the General features of his appearance, or even to understand whether their owner vertebrates. The Caron and Maurice managed to find over a hundred prints Metaspriggina walcotti shales in Marble Canyon, many of which are preserved so well that they can see the smallest details of the structures of the eye, the muscles and other soft tissues. Continue reading
Aegean civilization one of the ancient civilizations. It has evolved over the two millennia (3000 to 1200 years BC). The territory, which it occupied: the Aegean sea and its Islands, the Cyclades, the Peloponnese Peninsula, the Western coast of Asia Minor and the Eastern Mediterranean. The center of the Aegean culture is the island of Crete.
The first successful archeological excavations date back to 1876-the year in Mycenae and 1899-the year in Crete. Peak archaeological excavations clung to the NINETEENTH century. Then it was excavated several large cities: Poliochne (Lemnos island), Phylakopi (Milos island), Troy, Micena. In Poliochne was investigated wall height of 5 m; in Three of the Royal residence; in Crete the palaces of Knossos, Phaistos and Mallia; a in Mycenae Acropolis.
The most important discoveries can be called the conclusion of the English archaeologist Arthur Evans in the early twentieth century. After their amazing discoveries in Crete, he first compared them with the ancient Greek literature, Egyptian and Asian texts, and came to the conclusion that the culture of Crete to be associated with the cultures of Egypt and other countries of the ancient East. After that, he presented his version of the periodization of Aegean civilization and called it Minoan. Its essence is to divide it into three main periods, and each period of three subperiod. The study of the Aegean culture at the moment is complicated,as the script is still not deciphered.
– The early Minoan period (3000 – 2300 years BC). It lasted almost 8 centuries, and during this time the island of Crete didn’t know enemy attacks. This allowed well-to develop the agrarian sector (the island at that time was very fertile), navigation (the tracks lead to Egypt). At the same time started the development of metal, namely copper, which in turn gives impetus to the development of the craft. Continue reading
Transnistria is unique in many respects. This multiethnic region with centuries-old traditions of internationalism, and the state, even unrecognized, but for 18 years the existing de facto. with all state attributes, and the territory in which there are priceless historical and archaeological sites.
Alas, “the unrecognized” TMR and, as a consequence, economic instability, making the impact not only on commercial and industrial activity and the quality of life of citizens, but also on the work of researchers, funding for which, usually, is minimized.
So, only last spring, following the initiative of Vice-President Aleksandr Korolev began the restoration of the Bender fortress, a unique fortification X VI century, earlier almost not studied. And now today they say about the fortress far beyond PMR.
Much earlier, since 1995, scientists on the territory of Transnistria began to explore the largest burial mound ( III century BC) in S. Glina Slobodzeya district.
According to experts, this monument who already gave at least 5 scientific sensations, is conclusive evidence of the presence of Iranian speaking nomads – the Scythians on the Northern black sea region in the III century BC that were previously considered unlikely.
The accumulation in the lower Dniester Scythian burial mounds suggests that this once numerous people, pressed by the Sarmatians,was trying to regain his former power in this region. Today we can only guess what the victims of this attempt turned to the local agricultural population.
By the way, Transnistria in all ages have played the role of a kind of border zone, where at one time faced with the nomads and farmers, and the Turkish Muslims with Christian Europe. Of course – this vicinity is rarely bloodless. So the abundance of the Scythian burial mounds, is probably a sad testimony to the hard struggle for existence waged on the banks of the Dniester river 2,200 years ago (though and now). Continue reading