Still a lot of controversy raises the question about who made the earliest Oldowan tools found in East Africa. As the main “candidate” scientists call Homo habilis (Homo habilis). The first remains, which were later attributed to Homo habilis, found by L. Leakey in Olduvai gorge. These were the bones of young creatures: deformed lower jaw, a relatively large fragment of the upper part of the skull, bones of hands, feet and fragments of bones of extremities. Homo habilis is considered by anthropologists as a transitional link between the Australopithecines and complete human being. 10 years after the opening of Leakey, his son Richard made a sensational find in Koobi handicap. They discovered the skull had distinct human features. Measurements showed that the volume of the brain the owner of this skull could achieve 800 cubic cm — this figure is found among modern humans. Internal prints on the skull also testified in favor of the fact that he belonged to a man. Initially, P Leakey dated his discovery of 2.8 million years, but after additional tests, which gave differing from the other results, it was decided to choose the date to 1.9 million years. In 1987, Johansen has published data on the skeleton, which on the basis of the structure of the mandible was classified as Homo habilis. However, getlineincrement long bones of this creature showed that it is very close to an APE. Anthropologists note the great diversity observed in morphology of skeletal remains, commonly referred to as “Homo habilis”. This is most likely a result of normal mixing in one heap of bones belonging to the man and to the monkey. So who was Homo habilis, who created the first gun?
Among all the finds, Dating from the lower Palaeolithic, there are bone remains, whose humanity no doubt. This is the so-called Homo erectus (Homo erectus). The story of its discovery begins in the XIX century and is also linked to the search for “transitional point”. However, the desire to get him was so high that led researchers to put it mildly, an uncritical assessment of the results of their work. In 1890-1892, on the coast of the island of Java Dutch physician E. Dubois has assembled a collection of bones, from which he selected thigh, clearly belonged to a man, and a skull cap, according to him combining human and monkey signs. These bones lay in a half dozen meters from each other, so it is not clear why they had to belong to one creature. Besides these were found and other skulls and bones. Continue reading
Claudia Chang (Claudia Chang), an archeologist at Sweet Briar College of Virginia, does research and conducts excavations in the seven rivers, geographic region, most of which is located on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. She deals with this issue for two decades and says the results of the latest research disproves the existing opinion about the representatives of the steppe civilization as cruel and backward people.
Ms. Chang, along with colleagues published the results of years of work in the monograph “the Ancient art and culture of Kazakhstan”. The book was published in the publishing house of the University pristanische in parallel with the opening of the exhibition about the archaeology of the Iron age in the Museum of the Institute of the Ancient world at new York University. The exhibition presents artifacts of the nomadic tribes of the first Millennium BC, was found not only in Central Asia but in Persia and China. It is a product of the Iranian-speaking Saka tribes close to the Scythians; presumably Turkic wusun, who lived in those days in the North of uyguriya; items Pazyryk culture. The exhibition features inlaid turquoise and coral gold diadem made wusun the master and a few dozen Golden statuettes leopards and ibex. The geography of finds includes a large part of the territory of sovremennostyu from Shilikty near the Aral sea to the mountains of Tarbagatai ridge on the Eastern border with China. The exhibits have been selected to better show the interpenetration of steppe culture with ancient Chinese and Persian traditions.
Soren stark (Soeren Stark), co-curator of the exhibition and author of one of the sections of the book, talks about the community symbolism of ancient Persia and Central Asia. For example, the mythological winged creature, the Chimera with the body of a deer and wings of an eagle was revered in both regions, can be traced in China. The exhibited items indicate a high level of skill of the ancient craftsmen. Continue reading
One of big trading, craft and cultural centres that emerged on the ancient “Silk road”, was the great city with its famous suburbs Kokmardan, Cedar, Oksyz, Karakose, busy, famous as centers of trade and handicraft Affairs, science and culture and gave the world such outstanding scientists-Encyclopaedists, as Abu Nasr al-Farabi (870-950), Gabbas Side al-Jauhari (IX century), Ishaq al-Farabi (d. 961), Ismail al-Jauhari (mind. 1002), Ahmed al-Otari (XI—XII). Otrar had a clear layout of streets, blocks, squares, which was accessed through three gates, equipped with reversible bridges over the moat. The presence in the city mint coinage, artisan quarters, sanitation shows developed in the early middle ages urban life.
Only adjacent to the downtown area was more than 10 large and small towns, for many miles stretched his agricultural district with excellent irrigation facilities. In thicker multi-layer giant hill on an area of 20 hectares, what appears before us today Otrar, archaeologists K. A. Akishev, K. M. Baypakov, L. B. Erzakovich and others found the remains of material culture from the first centuries up until the first quarter of the eighteenth century, when the last inhabitants left in this desolate city.I had my reasons. Barely revived after the Mongol invasion, the city was repeatedly subjected to difficult tests, and became the scene of fierce clashes first between the rulers of the Golden Horde and Tamerlane, then Kazakh and Central Asian khanates.
Starting from the XV century, with the advent of the great geographical discoveries of the ancient “silk road” lost its former importance. Here less and less began to go the caravans of merchants with goods from different countries. Gradually declined, the artisanal, the network of ancient irrigation systems, the scale of farming. But the city continued to live until the eighteenth century. It is noteworthy that the architectural and design techniques Otrar dwellings, objects of material culture found in this once flourishing oasis are analogous in the Kazakh housing construction, the traditional culture of the Kazakh people, emphasizing the interrelationship of cultures, generations. In 2001-2004 there has been a project of UNESCO, Kazakhstan and Japan “Preservation and conservation of ancient Otrar”. Continue reading