Jerash (Jarash) is a provincial town located in the North of Jordan, whose population is around 30,000 people. It is of considerable interest to foreign tourists and is the second most visited place in the country, after the ancient city of Petra. Jerash is divided into two parts: ancient and modern. They are in close proximity to each other, and they are separated by only a wall. The entrance to the historical area of Jarash paid . to maintain the condition of the unique monuments of architecture and culture in the proper form.
It is believed that the first settlements on the site of the modern Jerash has arisen in the Neolithic period, i.e. in the period when culture inhabited this region people has changed from assign (gatherers, hunters) to producing (cattle, agriculture) the type of farming. And when you consider that in the middle East, the Neolithic period began about 9500 years BC you can imagine how much history it keeps ancient Jerash. People are attracted by beautiful nature, fertile soil and green hills of this region, allowing them to find food and shelter from the scorching sun.
In 63 BC, Jerash was conquered by the Roman army and included in the so-called Decapolis (the ten towns), representing a group of ten antique cities on the East of Jordan valley. City of the Decapolis were in government, had a certain degree of autonomy and were centers of Greek and Roman culture around them among the Nabataean, Aramaic and Jewish settlements.
The era of Roman rule is considered the Golden age of Jerash . who wore at that time the name of Gerasa (Garash). During this time the small town had turned into striking with its scale Roman settlement, built in compliance with all rules and laws of urban planning of those years. Moreover, when the 129 year old Roman Emperor Hadrian decided to visit Jerash . for his arrival was erected a triumphal arch. This grandiose structure was established almost half a kilometer from the southern gate of the city, with the expectation that the city will develop in this way. However, this was not true and therefore the arch is still standing a little away from ancient Jerash . Continue reading
Nervous in the way archaeologists ordered. Often because of the earth’s formations and caves you can get not only the ancient shards and historical relics, and human remains, buried in a rather grisly fashion, the archaic skeletons of unknown animals and other “horrors” from the darkness of centuries.
Scary human remains
Egypt is famous for its historical mysteries. So in 1886, the land of the pharaohs have got another. Egyptologist Gaston Maspero extracted the mummy from the sarcophagus, in order to razbitosti, to explore and to expose as a Museum piece. The burial was very modest, which is unusual for luxury Egyptian sarcophagi and burials is clearly not Imperial. And information about this mummy was almost any. On opening the coffin the researcher found a body which was only wrapped in sheep skin, without any decoration. Itself sheepskin symbolized the ancient Egyptians defect and impurity. In this case, the limbs of the mummies were related, but on the face frozen mask of horror and twisted into a creepy screaming mouth.
The terrible find in the environment of archaeologists was named “Unknown man E”. Many experts put forward their views regarding the death of the deceased, among which the most common was poisoning, torture and burial alive.
However, more than sovremennikami already in the 20th century dispelled all the myths and the guesses of their predecessors. It turns out that if during the mummification of the dead to tie up the jaw, as was done usually in the course of the tissues of the jaw opening and on the face froze creepy mask. It so happened that the strap or rope with the jaw had moved, or torn. Continue reading
Excavations of burial grounds and settlements is the most critical part of the procedure of field research in archaeology. Intelligence give information of different levels, which you can then repeatedly to check and add to it. The procedure of laboratory studies of a kind and also dependent on the improvement of the methods used. Excavations unique.
How carefully and professionally executed excavations of the monument, he was, nevertheless, destroyed. After excavation, he ceases to exist completely or in part as a monument of archeology, becomes the amount of scientific materials and information. Therefore, to unearth the monuments should only specialists with appropriate training and permission for the excavations (open sheet).
The organization conducting the excavation, the excavation Director must take care of the participation in the expedition of the necessary specialists. The excavation is supervised by the specialist archaeologist. The detachment must have assistants, laboratory technicians, skilled Photographer, draftsman, restorer, an anthropologist and other specialists, depending on the objectives of the field research.
The main tasks of the study of burial grounds
The study of ancient graves in the world and Russian science has a long history. Their excavations have presented the science with enormous archaeological, anthropological and other material. However, the peculiarity of this kind of monuments is that laid buried with only those items that are necessary for the burial ceremony.Thus, in the allocation of archaeological culture cannot be based only on data obtained from graves, as was done previously. However, it is incorrect to make General conclusions about archaeological culture only on some materials of settlements. The materials of these monuments should be subjected to an overall analysis. This allows us to achieve the necessary completeness of the data for reconstructing archaeological cultures. Continue reading