Excavations of burial grounds and settlements is the most critical part of the procedure of field research in archaeology. Intelligence give information of different levels, which you can then repeatedly to check and add to it. The procedure of laboratory studies of a kind and also dependent on the improvement of the methods used. Excavations unique.
How carefully and professionally executed excavations of the monument, he was, nevertheless, destroyed. After excavation, he ceases to exist completely or in part as a monument of archeology, becomes the amount of scientific materials and information. Therefore, to unearth the monuments should only specialists with appropriate training and permission for the excavations (open sheet).
The organization conducting the excavation, the excavation Director must take care of the participation in the expedition of the necessary specialists. The excavation is supervised by the specialist archaeologist. The detachment must have assistants, laboratory technicians, skilled Photographer, draftsman, restorer, an anthropologist and other specialists, depending on the objectives of the field research.
The main tasks of the study of burial grounds
The study of ancient graves in the world and Russian science has a long history. Their excavations have presented the science with enormous archaeological, anthropological and other material. However, the peculiarity of this kind of monuments is that laid buried with only those items that are necessary for the burial ceremony.Thus, in the allocation of archaeological culture cannot be based only on data obtained from graves, as was done previously. However, it is incorrect to make General conclusions about archaeological culture only on some materials of settlements. The materials of these monuments should be subjected to an overall analysis. This allows us to achieve the necessary completeness of the data for reconstructing archaeological cultures. Continue reading
Aegean civilization one of the ancient civilizations. It has evolved over the two millennia (3000 to 1200 years BC). The territory, which it occupied: the Aegean sea and its Islands, the Cyclades, the Peloponnese Peninsula, the Western coast of Asia Minor and the Eastern Mediterranean. The center of the Aegean culture is the island of Crete.
The first successful archeological excavations date back to 1876-the year in Mycenae and 1899-the year in Crete. Peak archaeological excavations clung to the NINETEENTH century. Then it was excavated several large cities: Poliochne (Lemnos island), Phylakopi (Milos island), Troy, Micena. In Poliochne was investigated wall height of 5 m; in Three of the Royal residence; in Crete the palaces of Knossos, Phaistos and Mallia; a in Mycenae Acropolis.
The most important discoveries can be called the conclusion of the English archaeologist Arthur Evans in the early twentieth century. After their amazing discoveries in Crete, he first compared them with the ancient Greek literature, Egyptian and Asian texts, and came to the conclusion that the culture of Crete to be associated with the cultures of Egypt and other countries of the ancient East. After that, he presented his version of the periodization of Aegean civilization and called it Minoan. Its essence is to divide it into three main periods, and each period of three subperiod. The study of the Aegean culture at the moment is complicated,as the script is still not deciphered.
– The early Minoan period (3000 – 2300 years BC). It lasted almost 8 centuries, and during this time the island of Crete didn’t know enemy attacks. This allowed well-to develop the agrarian sector (the island at that time was very fertile), navigation (the tracks lead to Egypt). At the same time started the development of metal, namely copper, which in turn gives impetus to the development of the craft. Continue reading
Not every city is fortunate enough to preserve the original appearance. In difficult times of war and conquest many cities were destroyed and then rebuilt, so only a few buildings managed to “survive” until our times. Remains of a magnificent city, which can rightfully wear the proud title of “the oldest city in the world”.
The mention of the first settlements on the site of modern Jericho are 9000 BC, After three millennia, the city actively began to rebuild and by the end of the 3rd and 2nd Millennium reached its peak. Several times he has been destroyed, one of which was mentioned in the Bible.
It was a magnificent city, in which houses were built of brick and stone. Archaeologists discovered ruins of an ancient synagogue, Dating back to I century BC, a magnificent winter palaces with baths, swimming pools and ornate halls. Near Jericho the mountain of Karantal, which, according to legend, Jesus was forty days tempted of the devil. Now in that place there is the magnificent rock-hewn monastery of Temptation.
One of the oldest city is Damascus, the first mention of which appeared in the middle of the 2nd Millennium BC. Due to the fact that in ancient times Damascus was under the rule of the Egyptians, Israelites, Assyrians, Persians and even Alexander the great, this ancient gurudwaras in the culture of these peoples.
He became known for his Damascus steel, which was popular in medieval Europe. Today you can see the ruins of the ancient gates of the fortress protecting the city from invasions, the Catholic Church, temples, mosques, the old houses that represent the most important monuments of Damascus culture and history. Continue reading