Sometimes archaeological finds do not only become valuable historical artifacts, but also radically change current views of the past. In our review of the 10-ka archaeological discoveries in recent history, which suggest that the ancient people were not so different from those living today.
1. Tintinnabula For centuries the Roman Empire was considered the pinnacle of civilization. Roman ruins are still one of the greatest surviving buildings, but archaeologists unearth new majestic statue amazing work. But for a long time the shocking truth about the everyday life of the Romans was completely hidden from the public. The discovery of Pompeii changed that: people learned that sexuality was literally permeated the whole Roman life. The Romans, for example, was not ashamed of the male reproductive organ. In many homes were found tintinnabula or glockenspiel — a huge winged phalluses, surrounded by bells. The Romans, the phallus symbolized men’s health and it was believed that it drives away bad luck.
2. The antikythira mechanism In 1901, divers had found the remains of an ancient shipwreck off the coast of the Greek island Antikythera. Among the finds were discovered typical trade goods such as statues and vases, ingots of metal. However, also on the surface bloodnet strange mechanical device that even a hundred years after its opening is a mystery. The mechanism, which dates back to 100 BC today considered an early predecessor of the computer. Using various cogs and wheels of the mechanism can be calculated, where to find certain stars and planets in the night sky. This discovery shows not only a deep understanding of movement of celestial bodies, but also an understanding of the structure of the Universe 2 thousands of years ago.
3. Stone spears In South Africa were found sharp pieces of stones that are ideal for the role of tips. Their age was unthinkable 200 000 years. This means that people have been hunting much earlier than was thought possible. Some evidence suggests that humans may have hunted even earlier: there were found the remains of fires, the age of about one million years. Continue reading
Still a lot of controversy raises the question about who made the earliest Oldowan tools found in East Africa. As the main “candidate” scientists call Homo habilis (Homo habilis). The first remains, which were later attributed to Homo habilis, found by L. Leakey in Olduvai gorge. These were the bones of young creatures: deformed lower jaw, a relatively large fragment of the upper part of the skull, bones of hands, feet and fragments of bones of extremities. Homo habilis is considered by anthropologists as a transitional link between the Australopithecines and complete human being. 10 years after the opening of Leakey, his son Richard made a sensational find in Koobi handicap. They discovered the skull had distinct human features. Measurements showed that the volume of the brain the owner of this skull could achieve 800 cubic cm — this figure is found among modern humans. Internal prints on the skull also testified in favor of the fact that he belonged to a man. Initially, P Leakey dated his discovery of 2.8 million years, but after additional tests, which gave differing from the other results, it was decided to choose the date to 1.9 million years. In 1987, Johansen has published data on the skeleton, which on the basis of the structure of the mandible was classified as Homo habilis. However, getlineincrement long bones of this creature showed that it is very close to an APE. Anthropologists note the great diversity observed in morphology of skeletal remains, commonly referred to as “Homo habilis”. This is most likely a result of normal mixing in one heap of bones belonging to the man and to the monkey. So who was Homo habilis, who created the first gun?
Among all the finds, Dating from the lower Palaeolithic, there are bone remains, whose humanity no doubt. This is the so-called Homo erectus (Homo erectus). The story of its discovery begins in the XIX century and is also linked to the search for “transitional point”. However, the desire to get him was so high that led researchers to put it mildly, an uncritical assessment of the results of their work. In 1890-1892, on the coast of the island of Java Dutch physician E. Dubois has assembled a collection of bones, from which he selected thigh, clearly belonged to a man, and a skull cap, according to him combining human and monkey signs. These bones lay in a half dozen meters from each other, so it is not clear why they had to belong to one creature. Besides these were found and other skulls and bones. Continue reading
Once, during a sudden and terrible fall of rain, a short man tried to find shelter in the Alps. All alone, in this godforsaken place, he, despite the pain in his chest, fled from enemies, sognava from their homes a few weeks ago. He suffered excruciating pain as evidenced by multiple broken ribs. Faint from hunger and thirst, he found shelter in a small rocky grotto. It was here that he died. Soon after his death began a snow, which hid the body of the deceased from the mouth of the beast and beak of a scavenger bird. And then began to slip the glacier. This could be to put the end if after 5000 years, especially the rays of the hot summer sun is not penetrating the cover of permafrost.
The mtrs, or as it is called – the Iceman (Ice Man) – was discovered dwma tourists from Germany, 19 September 1991 at the height of 3210 meters in the area of the Austrian-Italian border. More precisely – in the permafrost zone of gg, which is an integral part of the Autonomous province of Bolzano (South Tyrol). Preserved not only the body of ancient man, but his clothes, tools and weapons – all that, as a rule, archaeologists and scientists have to fantasize, and speculate. Of course, at first no one supposed that the aged poor guy will stun even the most sophisticated and experienced archaeologists – we all thought that the body belongs to a brave man, missing no more than two decades ago. Therefore, it is logical however, to retrieve the body of the thick ice was entrusted to the representatives of the Austrian police and mountain rescuers. Say pathologic anatomist, who made the initial examination of the tissues of the body, thought junk devices. But, fortunately, he was the person responsible and not too far from academia.
Once it became clear that we are talking about a man, near the age of which Egyptian pyramids look just fledgling Chicks, Ozi experienced the full power of modern science. They were examined, got measured; every piece of his body to enlighten the x-rays and examined under a microscope. Ozi was 160,5 cm tall and at the time of death his age was 40-45 years. Five laboratories conducted the radiocarbon study and agreed on the fact that died about the mtrs … 5100-5350 years ago! Continue reading