Archaeological heritage in the Museum–reserve “Kizhi”

On the territory of Museum–reserve “Kizhi” there are about fifty archaeological objects that are part of historical and cultural heritage of the area. The work on preservation, studying and popularization of the archaeological heritage Department of archaeology of the Museum.

The surroundings of Kizhi island were inhabited by people since ancient times – from the stone age. Long before these lands of the Slavs–farmers, even in the seventh Millennium BC there lived the oldest population, which was engaged in hunting and fishing. Traces of ancient people have been preserved in the form of numerous archaeological sites – the remnants of settlements and burials, which are studied by the archaeological expedition of the Museum each year conducting research in southern Zaonezhye.

As a result of years of work the regularities of settling of the ancient man, identified significant numbers of new archaeological sites. Most of them are located on the ancient Bank of the Vozhmarikha Bay and form an outdoor expedition in 1995 vozmozhnosti archaeological complex, consisting of ancient settlements all known in the Lake Onega region of archaeological cultures of the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Eneolithic.

Excavations carried out on the most interesting settlements, giving important materials the study of the ancient past of the region. To date, 15 of the investigated settlements of the stone age – early metal. The remains of ancient dwellings, homes, commercial buildings. The collection of implements of slate, quartz, flint and lyddite, and samples of ancient pottery of the neo–Eneolithic time allow us to trace the processes of formation and development of ancient cultures in the local area. Research involving data from natural Sciences – paleogeography and quartz. This allows us to trace the relationship between changes in the environment and the material culture of the ancient population. Continue reading

Amazing archaeological finds

Sometimes archaeological finds do not only become valuable historical artifacts, but also radically change current views of the past. In our review of the 10-ka archaeological discoveries in recent history, which suggest that the ancient people were not so different from those living today.

1. Tintinnabula For centuries the Roman Empire was considered the pinnacle of civilization. Roman ruins are still one of the greatest surviving buildings, but archaeologists unearth new majestic statue amazing work. But for a long time the shocking truth about the everyday life of the Romans was completely hidden from the public. The discovery of Pompeii changed that: people learned that sexuality was literally permeated the whole Roman life. The Romans, for example, was not ashamed of the male reproductive organ. In many homes were found tintinnabula or glockenspiel — a huge winged phalluses, surrounded by bells. The Romans, the phallus symbolized men’s health and it was believed that it drives away bad luck.

2. The antikythira mechanism In 1901, divers had found the remains of an ancient shipwreck off the coast of the Greek island Antikythera. Among the finds were discovered typical trade goods such as statues and vases, ingots of metal. However, also on the surface bloodnet strange mechanical device that even a hundred years after its opening is a mystery. The mechanism, which dates back to 100 BC today considered an early predecessor of the computer. Using various cogs and wheels of the mechanism can be calculated, where to find certain stars and planets in the night sky. This discovery shows not only a deep understanding of movement of celestial bodies, but also an understanding of the structure of the Universe 2 thousands of years ago.

3. Stone spears In South Africa were found sharp pieces of stones that are ideal for the role of tips. Their age was unthinkable 200 000 years. This means that people have been hunting much earlier than was thought possible. Some evidence suggests that humans may have hunted even earlier: there were found the remains of fires, the age of about one million years. Continue reading

Who was the first man?

Still a lot of controversy raises the question about who made the earliest Oldowan tools found in East Africa. As the main “candidate” scientists call Homo habilis (Homo habilis). The first remains, which were later attributed to Homo habilis, found by L. Leakey in Olduvai gorge. These were the bones of young creatures: deformed lower jaw, a relatively large fragment of the upper part of the skull, bones of hands, feet and fragments of bones of extremities. Homo habilis is considered by anthropologists as a transitional link between the Australopithecines and complete human being. 10 years after the opening of Leakey, his son Richard made a sensational find in Koobi handicap. They discovered the skull had distinct human features. Measurements showed that the volume of the brain the owner of this skull could achieve 800 cubic cm — this figure is found among modern humans. Internal prints on the skull also testified in favor of the fact that he belonged to a man. Initially, P Leakey dated his discovery of 2.8 million years, but after additional tests, which gave differing from the other results, it was decided to choose the date to 1.9 million years. In 1987, Johansen has published data on the skeleton, which on the basis of the structure of the mandible was classified as Homo habilis. However, getlineincrement long bones of this creature showed that it is very close to an APE. Anthropologists note the great diversity observed in morphology of skeletal remains, commonly referred to as “Homo habilis”. This is most likely a result of normal mixing in one heap of bones belonging to the man and to the monkey. So who was Homo habilis, who created the first gun?

Among all the finds, Dating from the lower Palaeolithic, there are bone remains, whose humanity no doubt. This is the so-called Homo erectus (Homo erectus). The story of its discovery begins in the XIX century and is also linked to the search for “transitional point”. However, the desire to get him was so high that led researchers to put it mildly, an uncritical assessment of the results of their work. In 1890-1892, on the coast of the island of Java Dutch physician E. Dubois has assembled a collection of bones, from which he selected thigh, clearly belonged to a man, and a skull cap, according to him combining human and monkey signs. These bones lay in a half dozen meters from each other, so it is not clear why they had to belong to one creature. Besides these were found and other skulls and bones. Continue reading

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Amazing archaeological finds
Sometimes archaeological finds do not only become valuable historical artifacts, but also radically change current views of the past. In our review of the 10-ka archaeological discoveries in recent history,…

Continue reading →