Archaeological heritage in the Museum–reserve “Kizhi”
On the territory of Museum–reserve “Kizhi” there are about fifty archaeological objects that are part of historical and cultural heritage of the area. The work on preservation, studying and popularization of the archaeological heritage Department of archaeology of the Museum.
The surroundings of Kizhi island were inhabited by people since ancient times – from the stone age. Long before these lands of the Slavs–farmers, even in the seventh Millennium BC there lived the oldest population, which was engaged in hunting and fishing. Traces of ancient people have been preserved in the form of numerous archaeological sites – the remnants of settlements and burials, which are studied by the archaeological expedition of the Museum each year conducting research in southern Zaonezhye.
As a result of years of work the regularities of settling of the ancient man, identified significant numbers of new archaeological sites. Most of them are located on the ancient Bank of the Vozhmarikha Bay and form an outdoor expedition in 1995 vozmozhnosti archaeological complex, consisting of ancient settlements all known in the Lake Onega region of archaeological cultures of the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Eneolithic.
Excavations carried out on the most interesting settlements, giving important materials the study of the ancient past of the region. To date, 15 of the investigated settlements of the stone age – early metal. The remains of ancient dwellings, homes, commercial buildings. The collection of implements of slate, quartz, flint and lyddite, and samples of ancient pottery of the neo–Eneolithic time allow us to trace the processes of formation and development of ancient cultures in the local area. Research involving data from natural Sciences – paleogeography and quartz. This allows us to trace the relationship between changes in the environment and the material culture of the ancient population.
In addition to the monuments of prehistoric archaeology of great interest to study are the remains of a rural medieval settlements (the so-called settlements). To date studied more than ten villages, received the evidence of the settlement of the island of Kizhi ancient population in X–XI centuries. The most interesting material obtained during the excavations of the monuments on Kizhi island is on-site exposition of the manor house of Yakovlev” and within the village Vasilyevo.
In their research the Department of archaeology of the Museum–reserve “Kizhi” actively cooperates with the laboratory of Quaternary Geology Institute of Geology, Karelian research centre, radiocarbon Dating laboratory of the Institute of history of material culture RAS (St. — Petersburg), Department of anthropology MAI RAS (S. Petersburg) and other agencies. In excavation works involved history students of Petrozavodsk higher educational institutions. Passing in an expedition led by archaeologists of the Museum “Kizhi” archaeological practice students master the basics of field archaeology, gain skills of excavation works.
The Museum–reserve “Kizhi” is formed the archaeological collection, which is based on materials of excavations by archaeologists of the Museum. The total number of items in the collection of archaeology is more than 7000 items. On the basis of the Museum collection prepared by archaeological exhibitions dedicated to ancient culture, including a permanent exhibition on display at Kizhi island. It presents samples of ancient tools, pottery, finds of the middle ages, as well as numerous illustrative materials types of excavations.