Sanders Miller. Ruins. 1749 Hagley hall.
Architectural monuments of many civilizations have come down to our days in the form of ruins. However, in the XVIII century. there were special ruins-specially built in manors or city parks, in places where there were no authentic ancient ruins. What attracted the false (artificial) ruins of the XVIII century man?
Interest in false ruins arose in Rome, where the famous Italian architect and graphic artist Giovanni Battista Piranesi, author of hundreds of engravings with views of ancient Roman ruins, worked. With his light hand, Rome became perceived as a giant ruin-a place of inspiration for artists and architects. Young masters came there to study the buildings destroyed by time. From Rome, they brought antique “Souvenirs” — fragments of sculptures and architectural details, as well as a love of ruins:” home ” ruins appeared all over Europe. Continue reading
For people who are interested in the diplomatic vanity of vanities, Lithuania has always been the subject of political eloquence, precisely because of the historical claims of the Lithuanian people (by the way, nothing in common with the Slavs, and even more so with the poles, not having) to Vilna. But there was no case when a diplomat, who was well aware of the external state situation of Lithuania, became interested in the cultural growth of a young country, looking deeper not into the texts of treaties, notes and agreements, but into folk art, museums and songs, which give a completely unique idea of a small country with a great past. The Lithuanian envoy was right, who in a conversation with representatives of a newly formed state, who pointed to the growth of the country, finances, army, etc., coolly asked: – do you have museums? Such a question in Lithuania would be completely unthinkable, because the entire past of Lithuania is a rich, diverse and rare Museum of the once greatest state… Ruins that speak so much, crosses that are blackened by time, thousand-year-old ruins of pagan temples, monasteries that have preserved the dust of the middle ages, the remains of the vast possessions of the Bernardine, Franciscan and Jesuit orders, rivers that were crossed by the soldiers of Attila, Groznago and Bonaparte – these are monuments of the speaker of the past… Continue reading
To the South of the Dardanelles, in a small space between the alluvial plain, where the waters of Kuchuk-Menderes flow, and the spurs of the hills of Khizarlyk, lie the ruins of this unique city, about which there are many myths and legends. As a result of excavations undertaken since the middle of the XIX century, traces of an ancient city have been found, which allows us to recreate the image, although incomplete, of the legendary city of Ilium, which was immortalized in his poem by the great Homer.
The first search attempts were made in 1870 by the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann. He was convinced of the existence of a city near Khizarlik, contrary to the popular belief at that time that Troy was nothing but a legend sung by Homer. After Schliemann’s death, the work was continued by Wilhelm Dorpfeld and closed in 1894. Subsequent excavations conducted by Karl V. Blegen confirmed the presence of at least nine levels of urbanization (Troy I-IX). The first cultural layers can be attributed to 3000 BC. These included fortification of the structure. Continue reading
London was founded in 43 BC during the Roman invasion of Britain led by Emperor Claudius. There is a theory that by the time of the invasion on this territory there was a large settlement, but during archaeological excavations nothing of the sort was discovered. However most of the historic centre, the excavations were not subjected, and the existence of a settlement prior to the invasion is completely impossible to deny.
At first, London was a very small area. In the nineteenth century, the archaeologists found that the length of the city from East to West was approximately 1 mile (about 1.6 km), and from North to South — about 0.5 miles (about 0.8 km).
Around 60 ad the city was attacked by a Briton Queen Boudica (Boadicea) and a large part of London was given over to the fire. The Romans responded by capturing some 80,000 Britons. Soon after the battle took place between the Britons and the Romans. According to popular belief, the battle took place on the site of the present station, kings Cross, Boudicca, defeated, committed suicide by taking poison. Continue reading
Mohenjo-Daro ( “hill of the dead”) — the city of Indus valley civilization, which emerged around 2600 BC Located in Pakistan, in the Sindh province. Is the largest ancient city of the Indus valley and one of the first cities in the history of South Asia, the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. It was discovered in 1920, together with the city of Harappa in Pakistan. The city is clearly built on the Vedic tradition.
Mohenjo-Daro stands out among the other centers of the Indus civilization is almost perfect layout to use as the main building material brick, as well as the existence of complex irrigation and places of worship. Among other buildings attract the attention of the granary, “big pool” for ritual ablutions 83 sq. m. and elevated “citadel” ( apparently intended to protect from flooding). Continue reading